Students Exactly Derive Quantization and its Universality


  • Hans-Otto Carmesin Gymnasium Athenaeum


Quantum physics, general relativity, unification, didactics, elementarization


The development of renewable energy is essential for the future of our economy, society and climate. Hereby, photovoltaic has an enormous potential. Is it possible to improve its efficiency? In order to find an answer, students make a model experiment with light absorbed by LEDs. Thereby, they discover the Planck constant. With it, they propose multi junction photovoltaic cells providing a significantly increased efficiency. Moreover, students find the same Planck constant in a diffraction experiment with electrons. Apparently, the Planck constant is a universal constant. Why is the Planck constant universal? In order to find an answer, students use the concepts of classical light waves and relativity. Thereby, they derive the fact of quantization as well as the universality of the quantization constant. Here, I present a learning process, by which learners can achieve essential insights about photovoltaics and quantum physics in an exact manner. Thereby, students find essential questions directly by experiments. Using basic principles of physics, they achieve inspiring and exact results on their own, after an appropriate instruction. I present the learning process and a didactic analysis, so that you can directly use the concept for teaching. I tested the learning process in various learning groups, and I report about experiences.


Hans-Otto Carmesin, Gymnasium Athenaeum

Gymnasium Athenaeum: Lehrer

Studienseminar Stade: Fachleiter

Universität Bremen: Privatdozent




Carmesin, H.-O. (2023). Students Exactly Derive Quantization and its Universality. PhyDid B - Didaktik Der Physik - Beiträge Zur DPG-Frühjahrstagung, 1(1). Abgerufen von